Elucidating mechanism cellular uptake
A more detailed description of these pathways is presented in the literature.We then focus on the endocytosis of nanomedicines and present how various nanomaterial parameters impact these endocytic processes.Platinum complexes (e.g., cisplatin) are among the most widely used pharmaceuticals for cancer therapy. In this article, we briefly review the endocytic pathways used by cells, pointing out their defining characteristics and highlighting physical limitations that may direct the internalization of nanoparticles to a subset of these pathways.The results of this study indicated that the size of crystal affected cellular uptake mechanism, and may provide an enlightenment for finding potential inhibitors of crystal uptake, thereby decreasing cell injury and the occurrence of kidney stones.There is a significant current need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the side-effects caused by widely-used pharmaceuticals.Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology » "Gene Therapy - Tools and Potential Applications", book edited by Francisco Martin Molina, ISBN 978-9-9, Published: February 27, 2013 under CC BY 3.0 license. The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTUSM) & Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai, China Non-viral delivery systems usually include mechanical, electrical, and chemical methods.Cationic liposomes and cationic polymers are two typical classes of non-viral vectors.
These fluorophores show similar spectral properties to their prototype, Texas Red succinimidyl ester (TR-SE).The delivery of p DNA or si RNA in vivo for therapeutic aims has been widely studied in recent years.However, non-viral delivery systems, which exhibit relatively low levels of efficiency, are not clinically applicable.The internalization and adhesion of COM and COD crystals to Vero cells were enhanced with decreasing crystal size.Cell death rate was positively related to the amount of adhered and internalized crystals and exhibited higher correlation with internalization than that with adhesion.
Vero cells mainly internalized nano-sized COM and COD crystals through clathrin-mediated pathways as well as micron-sized crystals through macropinocytosis.